Analysis of primary metabolites, inorganic phosphate, selected heavy metals and radioactive contamination in imported rice in Bahrain

Fadheela Al-Salman, Ali Ali Redha, Zainab Ali, Zainab Mohammed, Mohammed Ebrahim, Zahra Ilyas, Sayed Adnan Hussain


Rice plays an important role in the diet of Bahraini people. Rice is usually imported from different countries to Bahrain, as Bahrain does not produce rice. The sources of rice and their growth conditions vary from a country to another, this directly affects the quality of rice and thus it is necessary to analyse the rice content as it has a direct impact on society’s diet. In the present study, the protein content, carbohydrate content, inorganic phosphate content, selected heavy metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) content of 8 rice samples imported in Bahrain were analysed. In addition, the gamma radiation activity concentration of all samples was measured. The rice samples analysed were glutinous rice (from Thailand), long grain parboiled rice (from Thailand), Basmati rice (from Pakistan), Punjabi basmati rice (from Pakistan), brown rice (from U.S.A.), white pudding rice (from U.K.), jasmine rice (from Italy), and organic white rice (from Slovenia). The highest protein content and inorganic phosphate content was determined in Basmati rice from Pakistan. The highest carbohydrate content and Al content were determined in long grain parboiled rice from Thailand. Brown rice from the U.S.A. had the highest Cu, Mn, and Zn content, while the highest Fe content was determined in Jasmine rice from Italy. The lowest radioactive contaminated rice was the organic white rice from Slovenia.

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