Synthesis of functionalized alkenes via Knoevenagel condensation using Marine Fish Scales as a new efficient and eco-friendly catalyst

M. Ait Benomar, R. Mamouni, N. Saffaj, A. Laknifli, M. Ait Taleb, A. Faouzi


The preparation of Marine Fish Scales (MFS) and its analog doped with NaNO3 (NaNO3/MFS) as new catalysts was discussed in this work. Then, these materials were characterized by ATG/ATD, X-ray diffraction, SEM, EDX, and IR spectrophotometer. The MFSand NaNO3/MFS can be used as eco-friendly catalysts for the Knoevenagel condensation and led to the functionalized alkenes in high yields with short reaction time. The tests show that 100 mg is the optimum mass, as well as the suitable solvent, is ethanol for the condensation of Knoevenagel. These parameters led to excellent yields (between 87 % and 99 % using NaNO3/MFS). These catalysts can be also reused for several times.


Eco-friendly catalyst, Marine Fish Scales, Knoevenagel condensation

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