CONTRIBUTION IN PREVENTION OF CHOLERA IN DOUALARE HEALTH AREA (MAROUA, FAR NORTH CAMEROON): fACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENCE OF EPIDEMICS

Moussa DJAOUDA, Jojo MBALA EKAMBA, Guillaume EWODO MBOUDOU, Joseph Guy NZIELEU TCHAPGNOUO, Auguste OMBOLO, Serge Hubert ZEBAZE TOGOUET, Moïse NOLA

Abstract


 

The present study aimed to assess the risk factors responsible for cholera endemism in the health area of Doualare (Far North, Cameroon) where a prevention program is implemented. The investigation of groundwater used for human consumption resulted in detection of bacterial concentrations ranging from 2.04x 104 to 3.15x 105 CFU/mL for Heterotrophic Aerobic and Mesophilic Bacteria (HAMB), 3.10±0.02x104 to 4.50±0.04x104 CFU/100 mL for Faecal Coliforms and from 9.50±0.42x 102 to 2.60±0.01x103 CFU/100 mL for Escherichia coli. Water contamination may be due to unhygienic sanitary practices frequently observed around water supply wells. A positive correlation was found between E. coli and HAMB levels (p<0.05), and faecal coliforms and pH (p<0.01). Disinfecting capabilities of chlorine during epidemics could be compromised by the presence of Mesocyclops sp, larvae of Nauphilus, Ostracodes, Mesocyclops ogunnus and copepodites in well waters. Although V. cholerae was not detected in well water samples, a probable relationship was established between the poor bacteriological quality of drinking water during the rainy season and the occurrence of cholera epidemics (p<0.01). Furthermore the survey showed that a fringe of the population accounting for 8.3% practices open air defecation versus 11% using shallow latrines and for 24.1% of households latrine sludge is discharged in nature. Low permeable soil (2.3x10-6 m/s<K <2.9x10-6 m/s) and frequent rainfalls favor stormwater runoff stagnation. The study results may serve as a basis for the development of a simplified model for drinking water contamination by V. cholerae on which suggestions for improving strategies to prevent cholera epidemics could be based.


Keywords


prevention; cholera; endemic zone; Doualare; Far North; Cameroon.

Full Text:

PDF




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN-E: 2509-0445

ISSNPrint: 2605-6070