The management, from the origins to the beginning of the industrial era : A synthesis essay


  • Hadbaa HNAKA Ecole Supérieure de Technologie (EST) de Laâyoune, Université Ibnou Zohr
  • Zainab HNAKA Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion (ENCG) Agadir, Université Ibn Zohr

Mots-clés :

Management, Practice, Evolution, Organization, History


The objective of this paper is to present the evolution of the practice of management through the study of the ages of humanity, namely prehistory, antiquity, the Middle Ages and the modern period. This study revealed that during prehistory, the idea of management or organization did not exist but in order to live and survive, man invented techniques to organize himself such as the division of tasks. Antiquity, on the other hand, was organized in the form of societies which were in turn divided into several classes allowing a distribution of tasks and duties and generating the notion of hierarchy and a type of authority relationship to allow the balance of the system. The Middle Ages was a period characterized by several conquests opening the way to empires and the construction of states which revealed new management practices: structures, bureaucracy, command, etc. The modern period was marked by the establishment of planning, well-defined codes of conduct, regulations and a rigorous control system to make the industry owned by the few states work efficiently.