Large-scale agricultural investments and household vulnerability to food insecurity: Evidence from Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique

Authors

  • Wegayehu Fitawek University okf Pretoria
  • Sheryl L Hendriks Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, University of Pretoria

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.48346/IMIST.PRSM/ajlp-gs.v5i1.30458

Keywords:

Large-scale agricultural investment, food insecurity, coping strategy, vulnerability, ordered probit model

Abstract

This study set out to estimate the role of large-scale agricultural investments on household vulnerability to food insecurity in sample communities in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique based on their adoption of coping strategies. The study used secondary data from the three countries (Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique). The findings of the study revealed that households with members engaged in contract agreements with LSAIs adopted fewer coping strategies and were less food insecure than other households. Contract farming households seemed to cope better during food shortages (based on the marginal effects of the model). In comparison, households with members employed by a LSAI adopted more coping strategies than contract farming households. This might be because households with employed members had smaller numbers of livestock and smaller landholdings. Many LSAIs jobs were seasonal and low-paid, making the household less able to cope with food shortages. The study confirmed that households with more educated heads, smaller households, larger plot sizes and more livestock were less likely to slip into deeper levels of food insecurity should they face adversity. Most employed household heads had migrated from nearby districts. The job opportunities helped migrant workers mediate food insecurity. These results suggest that governments hosting LSAIs can promote plantation and contract farming that protect the land ownership of smallholder farmers, transfer good agricultural practices to improve agricultural production, household incomes and food security of smallholder farmers.

Author Biographies

Wegayehu Fitawek, University okf Pretoria

Wegayehu Fitawek is a PhD candidate in Agricultural Economics at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. She got a PhD scholarship from Land Matrix Initiative and working as data editor for Africa on the Land Matrix website. She is a fellow of the Netherlands Land Academy (LANDac). She has a Bachelor of Sciences in Agricultural Economics from Haramaya University and Masters in Agricultural Economics from the University of Pretoria and Haramaya University. Her PhD research focuses on the impact of large-scale agricultural investments on household food security in Africa.

Sheryl L Hendriks, Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, University of Pretoria

Professor Sheryl Hendricks is the Head of Department and Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, University of Pretoria, South Africa. She is a food security expert with extensive experience in policy analysis and programme design as well as food security monitoring and evaluation systems. She is engaged in high-level global food security policy think tanks and panels, is influential in food security and nutrition policy circles in Africa and actively supports food policy reform in African countries.

References

Aabø, E., and Kring, T. (2012). The political economy of large-scale agricultural land acquisitions: Implications for food security and livelihoods/employment creation in rural Mozambique. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP): Maputo. Working Paper, 4, 1–61.

Anseeuw, W., Wily, L. A., Cotula, L., and Taylor, M. (2012). Land rights and the rush for land: Findings of the global commercial. International Land Coalition (ILC): Rome.

Andrews, N., and Cochrane, L. 2021. The transnational land rush in Africa. International political economy and the land rush in Africa: Trends, scale, narratives, and contestations. Palgrave Macmillan: Springer.

AUC-ECA-AfDB Consortium. (2014). Guiding principles on large-scale land-based investments in Africa. AUC-ECA-AfDB: Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.

Babatunde, R. O., Omotesho, O. A., Olorunsanya, E. O., and Owotoki, G. M. (2008). Determinants of vulnerability to food insecurity: A gender-based analysis of farming households in Nigeria. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 63(2), 116-125.

Baumgartner, P., Von Braun, J., Abebaw, D., and Müller, M. (2015). Impacts of large-scale land investments on income, prices, and employment: Empirical analyses in Ethiopia. World Development, 72, 175-190.

Bekele, A. E., and Abdissa, F. M. (2019). Vulnerability to food insecurity and households' coping strategies. Journal of Rural Development, 34(4), 529-542.

Bekele, A. E., Dries, L., Heijman, W., and Drabik, D. (2021). Large scale land investments and food security in agropastoral areas of Ethiopia. Food Security, 13(2), 309-327.

Behrman, J., Meinzen-Dick, R., Quisumbing, A., (2012). The gender implications of large-scale land deals. Journal of Peasant Stud. 39 (1), 49–79.

Bindraban, P. S., Aalbers, H. L., Moll, H. A. J., Brouwer, I. D., Van Dorp, M., Houtman, C. B., Brouwer, M.M.M., Zuurbier, E.C.M., and Hagenaars, E. C. M. (2003). Focus on food insecurity and vulnerability: A review on the UN system common country assessments and World Bank poverty reduction strategy papers. FAO: Rome.

Clemence, B., Grace, N. N., and Tafadzwa, D. (2017). The impact of large-scale investments on the livelihoods of smallholder farming communities: The cases of Green Fuel and Tongaat Hullett Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association: Harare.

Conte, A. (2005). Household food security profiles. VAM analytical approach. World Food Programme thematic guidelines. WFP: Rome.

Daniel, S. (2011). Land grabbing and potential implications for world food security. Springer: Dordrecht.

Davis, K. F., Rulli, M. C., and D'Odorico, P. (2015). The global land rush and climate change. Earth's Future, 3(8), 298-311.

Deininger, K. (2013). Global land investments in the bio‐economy: Evidence and policy implications. Agricultural Economics, 44(s1), 115-127.

Dercon, S., and Christiaensen, L. (2011). Consumption risk, technology adoption and poverty traps: Evidence from Ethiopia. Journal of Development Economics, 96(2), 159-173.

Dunga, H. M., and Dunga, S. H. (20170. Coping strategies among the food–insecure household in Malawi: A case of female and male-headed households in South Eastern of Malawi. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 9(1), 91-107.

Eriksen, S. H., Brown, K., and Kelly, P. M. (2005). The dynamics of vulnerability: Locating coping strategies in Kenya and Tanzania. Geographical Journal, 171(4), 287-305.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). (2012a). How to feed the world in 2050: High-level Expert Forum, Rome, October 12-13. http://www.fao.org/wsfs/forum2050/wsfs-forum/en/, (Accessed on 18 January 2021).

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). (2012b). Voluntary guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests in the context of national food security. FAO: Rome.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: Sage Publications.

Fitawek, W., Hendriks, S., Reys, A., and Fossi, F. (2020). The effect of large-scale agricultural investments on household food security in Madagascar. Food Security, 12(6), 1349-1365.

Fitawek, W., and Hendriks, S. L. (2021). Evaluating the impact of large-scale agricultural investments on household food security using an endogenous switching regression model. Land, 10(3), 323.

Friis, C., and Reenberg, A. (2010). Land grab in Africa: Emerging land system drivers in a teleconnected world. Global Land Programme, University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment in Switzerland. GLP, Report, 1, 1-42.

Gartaula, H., Niehof, A., and Visser, L. (2012). Shifting perceptions of food security and land in the context of labour out-migration in rural Nepal. Food Security, 4(2), 181–194.

Gelaw, F., and Sileshi, M. (2013). Impact of grain price hikes on poverty in rural Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 8, 69-89.

Glover, S., and Jones, S. (2019). Can commercial farming promote rural dynamism in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from Mozambique. World Development, 114, 110-121.

Gloy, B. A., Akridge, J. T., and Whipker, L. D. (2000). Sources of information for commercial farms: Usefulness of media and personal sources. The International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 3(2), 245-260.

Gunasekera, D., Cai, Y., and Newth, D. (2015). Effects of foreign direct investment in African agriculture. China Agricultural Economic Review, 7 (2), 167 - 184.

Hall, R., Scoones, I., and Tsikata, D. (2017). Plantations, outgrowers and commercial farming in Africa: Agricultural commercialisation and implications for agrarian change. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 44(3), 515-537.

Hendriks, S. L. (2015). The food security continuum: a novel tool for understanding food insecurity as a range of experiences. Food Security, 7(3), 609-619.

HLPE. (2020). Food security and nutrition: building a global narrative towards 2030. A report by the High-Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security: Rome.

Ibrahim, H. Y., Adeola, S. S., and Ibrahim, H. I. (2016). Determinants of food insecurity among farming households in Katsina state, North-Western Nigeria: An ordinal logit regression approach. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 61 (3), 291-301.

Johansson, E. L., Fader, M., Seaquist, J. W., and Nicholas, K. A. (2016). Green and blue water demand from large-scale land acquisitions in Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(41), 11471-11476.

Knight, E. P., House, L., Nelson, M. C., and Degner, R. L. (2006). An evaluation of consumer preferences regarding goat meat in the South. Journal of Food Distribution Research, 37(1), 88-96.

Krishnamurthy, P. K., Lewis, K., and Choularton, R. J. (2014). A methodological framework for rapidly assessing the impacts of climate risk on national-level food security through a vulnerability index. Global Environmental Change, 25, 121-132.

Land Matrix. (2021). Web of transnational deals. https://landmatrix.org/charts/web-of-transnational-deals: Accessed Date, [15 March 2021].

Lazarte, A. (2017). Understanding the drivers of rural vulnerability: towards building resilience, promoting socio-economic empowerment and enhancing the socio-economic inclusion of vulnerable, disadvantaged and marginalised populations for an effective promotion of Decent Work in rural economies. Working paper. International Labour Organization (ILO): Geneva.

Limon, G., Fournié, G., Lewis, E. G., Dominguez-Salas, P., Leyton-Michovich, D., Gonzales-Gustavson, E. A., Gonzalez, A.E., Cabezas, A.H., Pinto, J., Rushton, J., and Guitian, J. (2017). Using mixed methods to assess food security and coping strategies: A case study among smallholders in the Andean region. Food Security, 9(5), 1019-1040.

Lisk, F. (2013). Land grabbing or harnessing of development potential in agriculture? East Asia's land-based investments in Africa. The Pacific Review, 26(5), 563-587.

Loopstra, R., Reeves, A., and Tarasuk, V. (2019). The rise of hunger among low-income households: An analysis of the risks of food insecurity between 2004 and 2016 in a population-based study of UK adults. J Epidemiol Community Health, 73(7), 668-673.

Mahmoodi, M., and Mahmoodi, E. (2016). Foreign direct investment, exports and economic growth: Evidence from two panels of developing countries. Economic Research, 29(1), 938-949.

Makunike, R. E. (2019). Large-scale investment in African farmland and its potential role in unlocking smallholder agricultural growth: Case studies from Zambia (Doctoral thesis, University of Pretoria, Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development).

Maxwell, D., and Caldwell, R. (2008). The Coping Strategies Index: Field methods manual, CARE: Atlanta..

Maxwell, D., Vaitla, B., and Coates, J. (2014). How do indicators of household food insecurity measure up? An empirical comparison from Ethiopia. Food Policy, 47, 107-116.

Mechiche-Alami, A., Yagoubi, J., and Nicholas, K. A. (2021). Agricultural land acquisitions unlikely to address the food security needs of African countries. World Development, 141, 105384.

Mendy, J., Asongwe, G. A., and Nkongho, R. N. (2020). Vulnerability to food insecurity and coping strategies of agrarian households in the lower river region of the Gambia: Implication for policy. Int J Agric Sc Food Technol, 6(2), 115-126.

Mjonono, M. (2008). An investigation of household food insecurity coping strategies in Umbumbulu (Master dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Agricultural Science and Agribusiness).

Mthethwa, S., and Wale, E. (2021). Household vulnerability to food insecurity in rural South Africa: evidence from a nationally representative survey data. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), 1917.

Mustapha, S., Mohammed, T., and Abdul Fatahi, A. (2016). Determinants of household food insecurity in Northern Ghana: An ordered probit Approach. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 7(16).

Nkegbe, P. K., Abu, B. M., and Issahaku, H. (2017). Food security in the Savannah Accelerated Development Authority Zone of Ghana: An ordered probit with household hunger scale approach. Agriculture & Food Security, 6(1), 35.

Nolte, K., Chamberlain, W. and Giger, M. (2016). International land deals for agriculture fresh insights from the Land Matrix: Analytical Report II. Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern. doi: https://doi.org/10.7892/boris.85304.

Oberlack, C., Tejada, L., Messerli, P., Rist, S., and Giger, M. (2016). Sustainable livelihoods in the global land rush? Archetypes of livelihood vulnerability and sustainability potentials. Global Environmental Change, 41, 153-171.

Paglietti, L., and Sabrie, R. (2013). Review of smallholder linkages for inclusive agribusiness development. FAO Investment Centre, FAO: Rome.

Persson, A. G. (2016). Foreign direct investments in large-scale agriculture: the policy environment and its implications in Ethiopia (Doctoral thesis, University of Cape Town, School of Economics).

Proag, V. (2014). The concept of vulnerability and resilience. Procedia Economics and Finance, 18, 369-376.

Reys, A. (2016). African Food, Agriculture, Land and Natural Resource (AGROLAND). Mozambique sample and survey method report. CIRAD: Montpellier.

Reys, A. and Burnod, P. (2017). African Food, Agriculture, Land and Natural Resource (AGROLAND). Madagascar sample and survey method report. CIRAD: Montpellier.

Reys, A.and Mutea, E. (2017). African Food, Agriculture, Land and Natural Resource (AGROLAND). Kenya sample and survey method report. CIRAD: Montpellier.

Sam, A. S., Abbas, A., Padmaja, S. S., Kaechele, H., Kumar, R., and Müller, K. (2019). Linking Food security with household's adaptive capacity and drought risk: Implications for sustainable rural development. Social Indicators Research, 142(1), 363-385.

Shariff, Z. M., and Khor, G. L. (2008). Household food insecurity and coping strategies in a poor rural community in Malaysia. Nutrition Research and Practice, 2(1), 26.

Shete, M., and Rutten, M. (2015). Impacts of large-scale farming on local communities' food security and income levels–Empirical evidence from Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Land Use Policy, 47, 282-292.

Sileshi, M., Kadigi, R., Mutabazi, K., and Sieber, S. (2019). Analysis of households' vulnerability to food insecurity and its influencing factors in east Hararghe, Ethiopia. Journal of Economic Structures, 8(1), 41.

Soeters, S., Weesie, R., and Zoomers, A. (2017). Agricultural investments and farmer-Fulani pastoralist conflict in West African drylands: A northern Ghanaian case study. Sustainability, 9(11), 2063.

Songwe, V., and Deininger, K. (2009). Foreign The political economy of large-scale agricultural land acquisitions: Implications for food security and livelihoods/employment creation in rural Mozambique. Working paper. United Nations Development Program (UNDP): Maputo.

Thomas, K., Hardy, R. D., Lazrus, H., Mendez, M., Orlove, B., Rivera‐Collazo, I., Roberts, J.T., Rockman, M., Warner, B.P., and Winthrop, R. (2019). Explaining differential vulnerability to climate change: A social science review. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 10(2), e565.

Verma, R. (2014). Land grabs, power, and gender in East and Southern Africa: So, what's new? Feminist Economics, 20(1), 52-75.

Von Braun, J., Bezawit Beyene, C., Torero Cullent, M., Laborde, D., and Smaller, C. (2020). Ending hunger by 2030–policy actions and costs. Center for Development Research: Bonn.

West, J. J., and Haug, R. (2017). The vulnerability and resilience of smallholder-inclusive agricultural investments in Tanzania. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 11(4), 670-691.

WFP (World Food Programme). (2009). Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis Guidelines. Rome: WFP.

WFP (World Food Programme). (2018). Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping: Food security analysis at the World Food Programme.: WFP: Rome

Wineman, A. (2016). Multidimensional household food security measurement in rural Zambia. Agrekon, 55(3), 278-301.

Yengoh, G. T., Steen, K., Armah, F. A., and Ness, B. (2016). Factors of vulnerability: How large-scale land acquisitions take advantage of local and national weaknesses in Sierra Leone. Land Use Policy, 50, 328-340.

ZEF and FAO (Center for Development Research and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). (2020). Investment costs and policy action opportunities for reaching a world without hunger (SDG2). ZEF and FAO: Bonn and Rome.

Zaehringer, J. G., Wambugu, G., Kiteme, B., and Eckert, S. (2018). How do large-scale agricultural investments affect land use and the environment on the western slopes of Mount Kenya? Empirical evidence based on small-scale farmers' perceptions and remote sensing. Journal of Environmental Management, 213, 79-89.

Zepeda, L. (2001). Agricultural investment, production capacity and productivity. FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, 3-20. FAO: Rome.

Downloads

Published

31-01-2022

How to Cite

Fitawek, W., & Hendriks, S. L. (2022). Large-scale agricultural investments and household vulnerability to food insecurity: Evidence from Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique. African Journal on Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences, 5(1), 117–138. https://doi.org/10.48346/IMIST.PRSM/ajlp-gs.v5i1.30458

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.