Impact of land access and ownership on farm production: Empirical evidence from gender analysis in Southwestern Nigeria

Abdulrazaq Kamal Daudu, Bola Amoke Awotide, Lateef Lawal Adefalu, Oyedola Waheed Kareem, Latifat Kehinde Olatinwo


Millions of poor people who live in rural areas and rely on agriculture for a living need secure access to productive land. Gender disparities in access to productive resources, such as agricultural land, remain a major concern, especially in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the impact of land access and ownership on farm production across gender in Southwest Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 480 respondents comprising of 240 male headed households and 240 female headed households across the three states in Southwest Nigeria. Cross-sectional data were obtained through structured questionnaire and subjected to statistical analysis such as propensity score matching (PSM), inverse probability-weighted regression adjustment (IPWRA), and instrumental variable (IV) regression approach to control for possible endogeneity that could arise from the data collected. Farm yield of household heads was used as indicator to estimate the impact of land access and land ownership. Results show that most (56.7%) of male and 46.4% of female headed households acquired land through family inheritance. The significant difference existed between farm yield gained by male and female headed households due to their level of land access and land ownership at 5%. The size of the estimated treatment effect indicates a high improvement in the farm yield outcome of male headed households compared their female counterparts. Also, findings show that marital status, level of education, access to credit, and membership of association all had a positive and statistically significant relationship with both male and female headed households’ access to land and land ownership at various levels. This study thus, conclude that there were gender differences in land accessibility and ownership in the study area as male headed households were found to have more access to farm land than their female counterparts. Reliable data on male and female headed households’ access to land and land ownership are critical for providing an accurate picture of female headed households’ land tenure arrangement, improving policy formulation and monitoring progress towards the attainment of gender equality in land access is hence encouraged. Also, group formation and membership should be promoted and encouraged especially among female headed households to enhance their purchasing power through access to credit, and common voice in accessing communal lands.


Gender, Impact assessment, land access, ownership, income, yield

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