Kinetic and Thermodynamic evaluation on Removal of Anionic Dye from Aqueous Solution using Activated Carbon Derived from Agricultural Waste: Equilibrium and Reusability Studies


  • Musa Husaini and
  • Bishir Usman
  • Muhammad Bashir Ibrahim



Adsorption, Desorption, Kinetics, Methyl orange, Reusability, Thermodynamic


Nowadays, the presence of dye in aqueous solutions is a major environmental concern. Activated carbon of ginger bread plum (GBPA) was studied as agricultural wastes derived adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions using batch adsorption technique. The adsorbent was characterized using point of zero charge (PZC), Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to elucidate the impact of experimental parameters such contact time (5 – 150 minutes), adsorbent dosage (0.1 – 0.6g), particle size (75 - 900 µm), initial dye concentration (20 – 500 mg/L), pH (2 -12) and temperature (303 – 323 K). Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order were used to described the kinetic behavior of the process and the data from the experimental result accord with pseudo second order with R2 = 0.9999. The equilibrium data was also computed using Langmuir, Temkin, Freundlich, and D-R models and was found to follow Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamics studied parameters such as change in enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS) and Gibbs free energy of adsorption (ΔG) clearly indicates that the adsorption process was feasible endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption was performed using various eluent and reusability of the adsorbent was done in five successive cycles.